Language Attitudes and Language Hierarchy
Emotion Based Code-Switching
Beyond these three theories, there are other potential culturally complex reasons young children may code-switch, such as the way they view their family language(s) and the language of their newly adopted country/ culture. They can develop both positive and negative opinions about the languages in their life and potentially place these languages into a hierarchy.
Children develop social awareness of language differences between the ages of three and six and can start to express their preferences for language varieties (Yu-Hsiu Lee, 2018).
Some factors such as political and sociocultural influences cannot be helped by individual adults in a bilingual/multilingual child's life, but educators can make a positive impact on children's language attitudes.