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THE CONCEPT OF RESILIENCE

Risk Factors and Protective Factors

Risk Factors (make negative development more likely)

  • Environmental Stressors

  • Child Related Factors

  • Primary Factors (from birth)

  • Secondary Factors (acquired through interaction with the environment)

Protection Factors (increase chances of positive development)

  • ·         Social Resources

  • ·         Within the family

  • ·         Within the educational institution

  • ·         Within society

  • ·         Personal Resources

  • ·         Child Related Factors (genetic)

  • ·         Prosilience Factors (can be developed)

    • Self-Perception

    • Self-Control

    • Self-Efficacy

    • Social Competence

    • Adaptive Coping Skills

    • Problem Solving Skills

(Böhm & Hehlmann, 2000)      

PROTECTIVE AND RISK FACTORS
Protective factors and risk factors can change over time. The term ‘protection factor’ is used only in connection with a risk situation (Böhm & Hehlmann, 2000).