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THE CONCEPT OF RESILIENCE (RISK FACTORS AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS)

WHAT IS RESILIENCE?

There are stabilizing and destabilizing factors in terms of child development. The resilience concept summarizes these so-called risk and protection factors.

Risk factors may include: birth complications, unsafe bonding behavior, separation of divorce of parents, frequent moves/relocation, or the loss of a family member.

Risk factors are not necessarily detrimental to development. These are potential hazards, especially when there are a variety of factors in a child's life at a particular time or over a sustained period of time. (Böhm, 2000)

Protective factors can include: a stable emotional bond or relationship, an emotionally positive, supportive and structuring educational environment, role models for a constructive coping behavior under stress, temperament, the promotion of trust, autonomy and responsibility, an appreciative atmosphere characterized by warm-heartedness and respect and acceptance.

The term ‘protection factor’ is used only in connection with a risk situation. (Böhm, 2000)                    

Protective factors and risk factors can change over time.